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    Canine viral hepatitis

    What is canine viral hepatitis?

    Canine hepatitis is a viral disease mainly affecting dogs and that studies with fever, Anorexia, increase in nasal and eye secretions, conjunctivitis, hyperemia mucous membranes, vomiting, hepatitis and swelling in subcutaneous tissue (head, neck and declines in body parts).

    It is a disease caused by a virus specifically by canine adenovirus type I. The virus survives for several days at room temperature in dirty fomites and remains viable for months at temperatures below 4 ° C. It is resistant to chloroform, ether, formalin and is stable at certain frequencies of UV radiations. On the other hand, is inactivated by heat 50 - 60 ° C during 5 minutes and iodine, phenol and sodium hydroxide.

    Which animals suffer from canine hepatitis??

    Canine hepatitis is a disease that affects the dogs and bears, especially in animals less than one year. The high presence of antibodies in unvaccinated wild canines and wild dogs suggests that there is a widespread subclinical infection.

    How are the dogs of canine hepatitis contagious??

    Transmission occurs by direct contact with sick animals that eliminate the virus by all excreta and bodily secretions, especially for the urine where viruses can be found up to 6 a. 9 months post-infection.

    Animals can also be spread by indirect contact with contaminated fomites, including utensils for food and hands.

    Ectoparasites can accommodate the virus and can therefore participate in the natural transmission of the disease.

    How is this disease in dogs manifested??

    Dogs that suffer this disease from peracute form die within a few hours and often the owners think that it is a poison.

    The most frequent clinical signs, dogs that survive the acute viremic period, They include vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea with or without blood.

    There are usually difasica and transient fever and anorexia. It is common to see tonsillitis with laryngitis and pharyngitis. There is also cold, with conjunctivitis and eye and nasal discharge.

    There is often subcutaneous edema of head, neck and parties farther them bodily. In very serious dog are usually obvious abdominal hypersensitivity and hepatomegaly.

    There may also be Petechial hemorrhages and ecchymosis since there is a haemorrhagic Diathesis. Rarely is jaundice in acute phases but yes occurs in some dogs that they exceed this stage. Sometimes bloating is presented by accumulation of bloody fluid. Nervous signs like depression may occur in addition to all the symptoms above at any time, drowsiness or terminal coma.

    The course of the process but is complicated usually lasts for 5 a. 7 days before improving. After the recovery and in some cases it is the only visible sign, edema is observed corneal and uveitis. Dogs that have corneal edema have blefarospasmos, fotofobias and ocular serous exudate. The turbidity of the cornea (image of 'blue eye') usually start in limbo and spread toward the Center and you can end up with glaucoma or corneal ulcer. In uncomplicated cases, the clearing of the cornea starts in limbo and spreads toward the Center.

    How is canine hepatitis diagnosed??

    The veterinarian usually diagnose this process after a thorough clinical examination of the animal along with the results of blood and urine analysis.

    Although the clinical diagnostic is already enough to establish a treatment, the diagnosis can be confirmed by isolating the virus, especially from kidney and also anterior Chamber of the eye and liver and can be used to identify the immunofluorescence technique.

    The most frequently used serological tests are haemagglutination inhibition tests, complement fixation, Immunodiffusion and ELISA and often show high titers of the antibodies after infection with viruses of field in comparison with the virus used in the vaccination.

    What treatment is there in a dog that has the canine hepatitis??

    The treatment that applies is symptomatic since there is no effective therapy against adenovirus type I.

    There is a polyvalent serum that protects in the short term and serves as a treatment in the very early stages of the disease.

    It is usually a supportive therapy for giving the animal time to develop antibodies against this virus, because if there is no secondary complications and not cursa peracute form, the animal tends to recover.

    As treatment is usually applied antibiotics, isotonic solutions, hepatic protectors and a diet hipoproteica.

    Do canine hepatitis be prevented??

    Immediately the sick animal must be isolated to prevent it from getting to other animals. Also kept the newly acquired quarantined animals, before placing them in the canine collective.

    The best way to protect your dog is through vaccination. Are usually vaccinated with the vaccine canine distemper and leptospirosis.

    A polyvalent serum which prevents short term and does not interfere with maternal antibodies can be. This serum is recommended in case of our dog go to attend exhibitions and has not given time to start vaccination or to be immunized.

    There are vaccines with inactivated virus that so that they can protect the animal needs to be applied two doses of vaccine and the protection conferred by the animal is of 6 a. 9 months.

    In contrast, attenuated live vaccines have the advantage that a single dose protect effectively and lasting. So, must be our vet who tell us how and when to vaccinate our dog.